For many years, countries in Europe have been imposing fines on people who refuse to recycle. Sweden, in particular, is so good at recycling that it now imports rubbish from other countries to keep its recycling plants going. Scotland has installed machines that give money back for returning empty bottles and cans, safe in the knowledge that all items collected will be sent for recycling. And England is soon to follow.
Some countries, however, have no penalties or incentives at all for recycling.