by Della Daughtry
President, Sumter County Preservation Society
The story of Pemberton is one that starts the same as most pioneer settlements in Florida, but the end is quite different. By the time this town would come to an end there would be almost no trace of it left. Not one structure remains, only the town cemetery is still here to give us clues about the pioneers that settled and tamed this area of Sumter County. In 1842 Congress passed the Armed Occupation Act. The act authorized 160 acres to any adult male who could prove that they had cultivated at least five acres and lived “in a house fit for habitation for 5 consecutive years.” Several pioneer families began to move into the area. The Phelps family settled near the banks of the Withlacoochee River where they farmed the rich soil. Another family moved into the area about one mile northeast of the Phelps homestead. Britton Branch’s family raised cattle, and they found the land on the Wild Cow Prairie was good grazing land. It was here that Britton’s son-in-law William D. Boulden Sr. died of an abscess in September 1849 and was buried on the property. This property would later become Wild Cow Prairie Cemetery. Which is Sumter County’s second oldest Pioneer burial ground.
A stagecoach line came through the area in 1853, connecting Jacksonville to Tampa. The stagecoach crossed Sumter County making stops in Adamsville, Sumterville, and Phelps Ferry before crossing the river and heading toward Brooksville. Today, a small portion of the Stagecoach road still exists and can be traveled. The dirt road leading to Wild Cow Prairie Cemetery is the last trace of the old road that still maintains its original path.
Seeing an opportunity the Phelps family started a ferry business to help the stagecoach and other travelers cross the Withlacoochee River. A small settlement started to form around the ferry landing, drawing many new families to the area. In 1869 James T. Pemberton settled nearby and started working for the Phelps family on the ferry. He would go on to buy the ferry business from his employers in 1874 renaming it Pemberton Ferry. James T. Pemberton expanded the business to offer a small boarding house for late crossing on the ferry to stay the night. By 1878, settlement in the Pemberton Ferry area was large enough for a post office to be assigned. James Pemberton was the first postmaster of the settlement.
As James Pemberton began laying the foundations for developing a town, Henry B. Plant was developing the Florida Southern Railroad. By June 13, 1884, Pemberton Ferry was set to be the junction of the Florida Southern Railway and the South Florida Railroad. In 1885, Henry B. Plant built a depot in Pemberton Ferry as part of the Plant train system. The depot was named the Withlacoochee Depot. Pemberton Ferry was platted as a city on April 6, 1886. By this time, the name was shortened to Pemberton.
The town had a population of 150 and the following structures:
A Baptist Church, A School, Cargo Depot, Ferry Service, Boarding House, Telegraph Office, Blacksmith Shop, Restaurant, Hotel, Cemetery, Train turntable, Passenger Depot, 3 Stores, Steamboat Landing, Jail
James T. Pemberton opened the Pemberton Hotel in 1887. The hotel was said to have been one of the most handsome hotels along the Southern Florida Railroad. It was a multiple floored structure with a wide porch that wrapped around three sides of the building, with two turrets on the front. The hotel sat back up on a small rise overlooking the river and had space for a shop on the first floor of the building as well as a restaurant. In 1890, the Pemberton Hotel was destroyed by a fire that originated in the kitchen and spread rapidly through the structure.
1888 would be a dark year in and around Pemberton and much of Florida. Yellow Fever was very bad that year. Quarantine camps were located at Marsh Bend near Lake Panasoffkee and near Pemberton. James Pemberton’s 9-year-old daughter Annie would die while in quarantine in September 1888. She was laid to rest in Wild Cow Prairie Cemetery. The Yellow Fever outbreaks would claim several other towns’ people before it ended.
By the 1890s, the region was an important phosphate mining area and Pemberton itself served as both an important logistics hub for phosphate mining and a center of phosphate processing. The turpentine industry was also booming at this time and brought in an influx of workers. This in turn brought in an influx of illicit activities, giving certain areas a wild west feel that one newspaper described as “a perfect hell hole.” The area around the railroads also gained a reputation as a safe haven for escaped criminals. Because of this, the Plant Railroad system tore down the Withlacoochee Depot and ceased all stops in Pemberton. The railroad built a new depot across the river in Hernando County. The new depot was named Croom. It is believed this is the moment in history when Pemberton’s history becomes muddled with the town of Croom’s. Croom is located in Hernando County while Pemberton was in Sumter. The two cities were at least a mile apart and separated by a river, the depot being moved is the only evidence as to why the two towns were believed to be the same place. As the area suffered from unchecked deforestation and over mining, Pemberton was no longer a prosperous place to live for its citizens. As many of the businesses moved into Hernando County, Pemberton struggled. By the early 1910s, it was not found on many of the county maps of the period.
The area where Pemberton used to be located was bought in August of 1934, by the Resettlement Administration. The (RA) purchased “submarginal” farmlands with the intention of resettling the farm owners and their families elsewhere. Any abandoned structures were torn down and all usable building material was reused in the construction of local WPA buildings.
James T. Pemberton would die May 15, 1905, and would be buried in Wild Cow Prairie Cemetery. Wild Cow Prairie Cemetery is the final resting place for 8 veterans. 2 Sumter County Commissioners. 1 Hernando County Commissioner, 1 Hernando County Board of Public Instruction, and the many many citizens of Pemberton Florida.
Today you can walk through what was once the streets of Pemberton when you use the Croom Hiking Trail. By starting your hike at River Junction you will see most of the land that was once Pemberton while enjoying the beautiful scenery. As you approach Iron Bridge Park, you will be in the northernmost part of the Town of Pemberton. From there you will travel along the path until you reach Hog Island, the former site of the 1888 Yellow Fever Quarantine camp.
Wild Cow Prairie Cemetery is located on C. R. 673. This historic site sits in the shadow of the C. R. 476 B/C.R. 673 overpass and isn’t hard to find. The Florida Division of Historical Resources-Historic Marker Council approved a recent nomination for a marker to be placed at the cemetery to help educate visitors to the cemetery about the early settlers who are laid to rest there and highlight the important historic value the cemetery contributes to Sumter County. The Sumter County Historical and Sumter County Preservation Societies are raising the needed $2,420 needed to pay for the Historic Marker.
All donations are tax-deductible and can be made here: